- Logic coverage testing. What used to be known as “logic coverage testing” is now called control flow testing.
- Equivalence partitioning. All test methods described in this article are based on the idea of splitting a set of all possible input data into equivalence classes. This means that they all relate to equivalence partitioning testing methods. The scientist strongly advised that the readers explore the code and specifications, and then using them split the input data into equivalent classes for testing the program. He also proposed several complex heuristic rules for this. This results in the creation of special methods for each specific program. The principle, of course, is sound and absolutely correct, but in practice, the testers have difficulty in determining these vague (though fruitful) equivalence classes. There are ready-made methods for splitting into equivalence classes (or test methods), which facilitates their practical use.
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- Boundary value analysis. The expert’s reasoning about the boundary value analysis is part of a more general and more powerful domain testing methodology. The technique is based on testing at each side of the boundary between partitions.
- Cause and effect diagrams (Cause-and-effect analysis). Such methods are difficult to use by potential testers who do not possess the necessary knowledge, such as Boolean algebra or the theory of switching circuits. Ostrand remarked admirably on this technique: “By translating these specifications into cause-effect diagrams, testers replace one complex view with another.”
- Error guessing. When choosing a testing technique, we rely on a certain type of errors, which we expect to find, since any method uses the tester’s knowledge to make an educated guess as to other problematic areas that you can come across. Therefore, error guessing is not a type of testing method, but an attribute of any of the methods. The error guessing, based on the statistical analysis of errors made by programmers, is a quite sensible idea. Today we have similar statistics and, based on them, we choose a certain testing method. There is also a formal theory of testing based on error guessing.